# In the generation of element geometries, for what value of j^e, the element geometries lie within the limits of acceptable distortion?

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In the generation of element geometries, for what value of j^e, the element geometries lie within the limits of acceptable distortion?

(a) j^e>0

(b) j^e<0

(c) j^e=0

(d) Any real value of j^e

The question was posed to me in unit test.

My question is based upon Modelling Considerations in section Interpolation Functions, Numerical Integration and Modelling Considerations of Finite Element Method

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The correct choice is (a) j^e>0

Easiest explanation: If j^e is zero, then a nonzero area element in the real element is mapped into zero areas in the master element, which is unacceptable. Also, if j^e<0, a right-handed coordinate system is mapped into a left-handed coordinate system. In order to keep the element geometries within acceptable distortion, the j^e must be greater than zero, and excessive distortion is avoided.

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