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Flocculation is caused by increasing ___________

(a) Electrolytic concentration

(b) Ion valence

(c) Temperature

(d) All of the mentioned

The question was asked in exam.

Question is from Soil Structure topic in section Soil Structure and Clay Minerology of Geotechnical Engineering I

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Right option is (d) All of the mentioned

To explain: The factor in a soil-water system affecting flocculation is electrolyte concentration, temperature and dielectric constant or ion valence.

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